Allerlei Fischräuber, bepelzt und befiedert

Die Ziele und Bestrebungen der Menschen sind verschieden und müssen es sein. Was bringt mir Nutzen und Gewinn? was ist für mich persönlich von Vorteil? was kann mir schaden? was steht mir im Wege, mein Ziel zu erreichen? Das sind die täglichen Fragen des einzelnen.

Aber der einzelne vermag wenig. Gleichgesinnte haben sich deshalb zu Verbänden zusammengeschlossen, um mit vereinten Kräften das gemeinsame Ziel zu verfolgen. Solcher Vereine oder Verbände gibt es unzählige, und wo sie lediglich äußere Vorteile im Auge haben, wo die Frage nach Nutzen und Schaden im Vordergrund steht, da kreuzen sich ihre Interessen vielfach, und es treten Gegensätze hervor, die oftmals zu erbitterten Kämpfen führen.

Der Landwirt, der Jäger, der Fischzüchter, der Obstgärtner, der Imker u. a., sie glauben ein Recht zu haben, mit allen Mitteln die Ziele zu verfolgen, die ihnen ihr Beruf setzt. Sie vergessen aber nur zu leicht dabei die Rücksichtnahme, die sie ihren Mitmenschen schuldig sind, und nicht nur diesen, sondern unserer gemeinsamen Mutter, der Natur, der wir alles verdanken.

Der Jäger sucht die Feinde seines sorgsam gehegten Wildstandes unschädlich zu machen; er stellt also auch den Raubvögeln nach, deren herrlicher Flug das Auge und Herz des Naturfreundes erfreut, und er fragt wenig danach, ob er dadurch den Landwirt schädigt, zu dessen treuesten Verbündeten im Kampfe gegen die Mäuse gerade sehr viele Raubvögel gehören. Der Fischereiberechtigte leidet den farbenprächtigen Eisvogel nicht und fängt ihn in kleinen Tellereisen, obgleich die Vogelfreunde sich bemühen, diesen herrlichen Edelstein der heimatlichen Vogelwelt vor völligem Untergang zu bewahren, oder er setzt Prämien für die Erlegung des Fischadlers und anderer Fischfeinde aus, bepelzt und befiedert, deren Vernichtung auch die Wissenschaft beklagen muß, sobald es sich um seltene Naturdenkmäler handelt. Der Bienenzüchter ist den Meisen und Rotschwänzchen feindlich gesinnt, die ihm manche Biene wegschnappen; er vergißt dabei, daß gerade diese Vögel dem deutschen Forstmann wie dem Obstgärtner von allergrößtem Nutzen sind. Der Pächter von Kirschplantagen klagt darüber, daß der Vogelfreund den Star durch Aushängen von Nistkästen in mancher Gegend unseres Vaterlandes in einer Weise vermehrt habe, daß die Kirschenernte durch diesen Vogel arg geschmälert werde. Die Katze, die dem Gutsbesitzer unentbehrlich ist, wird geschossen, wenn sie sich am Waldrande zeigt, oder der Vogelschützler fängt sie in der Falle, die er in seinem Garten aufgestellt hat. Und so geht es weiter: überall Gegensätze, überall Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen den Jagdschutz-, Fischereischutz-, Vogelschutz-, Obstbau-, Bienenzüchter-, Gärtner-, Naturschutzvereinen und ihren einzelnen Vertretern, und jeder glaubt im Recht zu sein, wenn er sich über die Handlungsweise des Nachbarn bitter beklagt.

Und doch, nur ein klein wenig gegenseitiges Verständnis, ein wenig Rücksichtnahme, freundliches Entgegenkommen von der einen Seite wie von der andern: wahrhaftig, mancher Streit könnte beigelegt, mancher Zusammenstoß gemildert werden. Wir wollen doch nicht ganz aufgehen in unsern persönlichen Interessen, nicht immer nur nach Nutzen und Schaden fragen, nach eignem Vorteil und Gewinn. Auf eine höhere Warte müssen wir uns stellen und das große Ganze überblicken, nicht den einzelnen im Auge haben, sondern die Gesamtheit. So verschieden die Bestrebungen und Ziele auch sein mögen: in dem einen großen und idealen Ziele finden wir uns schließlich doch alle zusammen: die Natur unsrer Heimat möchten wir so gern in ihrer heiligen, unverletzlichen Schönheit erhalten wissen, soweit es ohne wesentliche Schädigungen berechtigter Sonderinteressen nur irgend möglich ist. Schutz unsrer Heimat! das muß unsre Losung sein; alles andre hat sich diesem allgemeinen Ziel unterzuordnen.

Wer den großen, gar nicht hoch genug einzuschätzenden Vorzug besitzt, daß ihn sein Beruf in die innigste Berührung mit der Natur bringt, der darf nie vergessen, daß er dieser unsrer Allmutter, wie seinen weniger begünstigten Mitmenschen gegenüber Verpflichtungen schuldet, die den eignen persönlichen Interessen vorangehen. Und so sollten sich all diese Begünstigten die Hand zum Bunde reichen und sich zusammenfinden in der Idee des Heimatschutzes, der kein kleinliches Partei-, kein einzelnes Berufsinteresse kennt. Die gefährdeten Geschöpfe unsrer Heimat gilt es zu erhalten, nicht zu vernichten! Wir haben kein Recht, die Natur zu verstümmeln. Wir wollen uns nicht nur der nützlichen und harmlosen Tiere annehmen, sondern auch derjenigen, die sich in vielen Einzelfällen als schädlich erweisen, und wollen diese wenigstens soweit dulden, daß sie nicht völlig von der Bildfläche des Lebens schwinden – unrettbar, unwiederbringbar!


Die Fischerei hat über die Menge der tierischen Feinde vielleicht noch mehr zu klagen als die Jagd. Dabei wollen wir die kleineren Räuber, die den Kerbtieren angehören, ganz unberücksichtigt lassen: den Gelbrand und seine Larve, die nicht nur die junge Brut überfallen, sondern sich auch nicht scheuen, mit ihren scharfen Freßwerkzeugen selbst größere Fische anzubeißen, oder den Rückenschwimmer, auch Wasserwanzen und Wasserskorpion, ebenso die äußerst räuberischen Larven mancher anmutigen Libellen, die als fertige Insekten zu den harmlosesten Tieren gehören. Wir wollen nur an die vielen Fischfeinde oder, besser gesagt, an die Fischliebhaber denken, die dem Fischereiberechtigten aus der Reihe der Wirbeltiere mancherlei Schaden verursachen.

Ein wirkliches Raubtier, der Fischotter, der Familie der Marder angehörend, ist wohl am meisten gefürchtet. Töricht und ungerechtfertigt wäre es, vom Fischereiberechtigten zu verlangen, diesen bösen Fischräuber unbehelligt zu lassen. Wo er sich in unsern Teichgebieten zeigt, die vornehmlich der Karpfen- und Schleienzucht dienen, da bleibt dem Besitzer oder Pächter gar nichts anderes übrig, als den Otter im Eisen zu fangen oder auf dem Anstand zu schießen oder auch durch scharfe Otterhunde und Teckel ihn in seinem Bau aufzustöbern; denn der Schaden, den der gewandte Schwimmer hier anrichtet, ist unberechenbar groß, zumal der Fischotter ungleich mehr Fische vernichtet, als er zu verzehren vermag. Auch den Möweneiern, der Kiebitzbrut, jungen Gänsen und Enten, zahmen wie wilden, stellt der mordgierige Räuber nach. Aber es gibt doch auch Gewässer in unserm Vaterland, Flüsse und Bäche, wo von größerem Fischreichtum nie die Rede sein kann. Wenn sich hier ‘mal ein Fischotter zeigt und der Fischereiberechtigte fängt nun an zu rechnen: 6 Pfund Fische täglich zum Fraß und noch doppelt so viel aus reiner Mordlust, macht 18 Pfund auf den Tag oder 65 Zentner im Jahre; alles halbpfündige Forellen vielleicht – mir schwindelt der Kopf, wenn ich dran denke, wieviel Tausende Papiermark das ausmacht: so ist solches Rechenwerk einfach lächerlich; denn so viel Fische beherbergt der ganze Fluß nicht, selbst wenn man die winzigsten Schneider mitrechnet. Oder hofft der Fischer etwa, wenn er den Übeltäter erst ‘mal hat nun die 65 Zentner Fische selbst einheimsen zu können? Vergebliche Hoffnung! Zu fischreichen Gründen, wie sie es vielleicht ehemals waren, als die Fabriken durch ihre Abwässer den Flußlauf noch nicht verunreinigt hatten, werden derartige Gewässer niemals wieder sich umwandeln, ob man den Otter gewähren läßt oder ihn wegfängt.

Zum Glück ist der Herr der Seen und Flüsse ein kluges Geschöpf, vorsichtig, mißtrauisch; die geringste Veränderung in der Nähe seines Baues und Ausstieges bemerkt er sofort, und so müht sich der Fänger in vielen Fällen vergeblich ab, den Fischräuber zu überlisten. Wir dürfen hoffen, daß das interessante »Fischsäugetier« unserer Heimat trotz aller Nachstellungen, wenn auch in verschwindend geringer Anzahl, erhalten bleibt.

Auch die Verwandten, die Mitglieder der eigentlichen Marderfamilie, stellen gelegentlich den Karpfen und Schleien und selbst den flinken Forellen nach. Gute Schwimmer sind sie alle, und was sie erreichen können zu Land und zu Wasser, wird erbarmungslos gemordet. Aber gerade die Vielseitigkeit ihres Speisezettels – Eichkatzen, Wildtauben, Häher, Krähen, allerlei Kleinvögel und ihre Eier, Mäuse und Frösche, Ratten, Junghasen, Kaninchen, Fasanen, Eidechsen, Fische, Maikäfer usw. – beweist, daß sowohl die größeren Arten, Baum-, Hausmarder und Iltis, als auch die kleineren, Hermelin und Mauswiesel, neben beträchtlichem Schaden, den sie vor allem der Niederjagd zufügen, doch auch manchen Nutzen stiften. Wo sie sich zu stark vermehren, da soll man ihnen Einhalt gebieten; aber sie auszurotten, wäre eine sehr bedenkliche Maßnahme. Mäusefraß und Rattenschaden, übermäßige Vermehrung der Eichhörnchen oder auch der Krähen und Wildtauben würden solchen Weltverbesserern beweisen, daß sie auf dem Holzwege sind.

Auch die kleine Wasserspitzmaus wird des Fischraubes beschuldigt, und gewiß mag ihr manche Elritze, mancher Stichling zum Opfer fallen; aber wenn man bedenkt, daß die flinken, ewig hungrigen Spitzmäuse jedes Tier auffressen, das sie überwältigen können, Schnecken, Egel, Libellen- und Schwimmkäferlarven, Flohkrebse, Uferwanzen, Heuschrecken, Regenwürmer, Raupen, Larven von Köcherfliegen u. a., wird der Fischpächter versöhnlicher gestimmt werden und den kleinen muntern Schwimmern auch ‘mal ein Fischchen gönnen.

Über die Wasserratte, die im Gegensatz zu den bisher genannten Fleisch- und Insektenfressern zu den Nagetieren zählt, sind die Ansichten geteilt. Die einen meinen, die Wasserratte rühre kein Fischlein an; andere dagegen behaupten, kleine Fische fielen ihr häufig zum Opfer, und wo Fischzucht getrieben wird, dürfe es daher keine Wasserratten geben. Allzugroß wird der Schaden jedenfalls nicht sein, zumal der Nager durch den Fang fischfeindlicher Wasserinsekten manchen Verlust wieder auszugleichen mag.

Influences which promoted the generation of Disease consequent upon the Use or Misuse of the Genital Organs.

Directly it becomes a question of studying the diseases of a particular part or organ, diseases occasioned by the nature of the use made of that particular part or organ, it is primarily requisite to investigate more precisely the different forms of this use. Then and then only shall we be in a position to define the share which secondary influences are competent to have in producing the said diseases. The natural use of the genital organs is simply the performance of the acts necessary to beget children. On this depends the preservation of the whole species. It is therefore improbable that Nature should have made such use liable to produce disease. As a matter of fact the experience of all ages shows that in a judicious marriage, the natural aim and object of which is the procreation of children, diseases of the genitals seldom, if ever, arise.

There must then be a secondary use of the genital organs, which is carried out without any view of begetting offspring, or in which this plays only a subordinate part, and consequently some other than the natural object is that pursued. This object is Sensual gratification, which is associated with the use of the genital organs, and the use of the genital organs for the attainment of this object is Sensuality. Every misuse of any given organ cannot but be associated with detriment both to the organ itself and to the whole organism as well. This must of course also be the case with the genitals,10 and it is in the misuse of them, in Sensual practices, that the most prominent efficient cause of maladies of these organs must be sought. Now it is our business to give a history of the maladies of the genital organs; and this is only possible on the condition that we have first of all gained a clear insight into the history of Sensuality.

Doubtless it is a melancholy task for the Historian to follow up and reveal the moral degradation of Peoples and Nations even to its most revolting details, and the Ethical philosopher might find not a few objections to raise against an undertaking of the kind. None the less is the Physician compelled to search out under all forms the traces of Vice in its most secret hiding-places, and so fathom the nature of the Disease in each individual case; and still more with Nations as a whole is he permitted,—nay! it is his bounden duty, to fix his eyes on their doings and those of each of their component parts. Thus only can he detect the nature of a Disease, which destroys the marrow of Peoples more surely and more terribly for this very reason that its genesis proceeds in secret.

The reproach that the Moral repute of Nations is hereby ruined, and the general mass saddled with the guilt of vices which of course only individuals ever committed, has no place here, for it is solely through the precise knowledge of the doings of these individuals that a due appreciation is possible of the danger that threatens the whole body politic from this source. Had not a false ideal of Morality hitherto restrained the individual, as it did the mass, from speaking out the truth, we should be much farther advanced than we are in the knowledge of a Disease, whose characteristic symptom it is that those who suffer from it endeavour, as far as they possibly can, to conceal its cause!

The Cult of Venus11.

§ 2.

The imaginative son of the South, already of his very nature prone to attribute all that his unpractised intellect failed to comprehend to the influence of a special Deity, was bound to do this pre-eminently in the case of an act that is even yet to us moderns wrapped in impenetrable obscurity,—the act of generation and conception. How could he think of this Deity12, that used his own body as its instrument and in so doing bestowed on him the highest pleasure of the senses, otherwise than under the shape of a Being equally alluring and loving, convinced that this Being must be infinitely more alluring13 than even the beloved form that he held in his arms? “The young man’s fancy” craves a lovely maiden; the maiden needed a loving sister, into whose arms she could trustingly throw herself, who intuitively divined all her soft, sweet emotions, to express which she sought in vain for words, which she scarce dared to own to herself that she was conscious of, and understood them!

To the Goddess’ Temple she wandered, before her poured out the longings that filled her heart to overflowing14, and at the last offered up herself a gift at the holy place, that so Aphrodité Ἀφροδίτη εὔκαρπος, κουροτρόφος, γενετύλλις,—Aphrodité rich in fruit, giving offspring, of the birth-hour) might be glorified in her, and herself be a participant in the highest happiness of Woman,—the joys of Motherhood. First she prepared herself by bodily purification15 before she trod the Temple threshold, then at the Temple altar she received spiritual purity; and thus thrilled through and through with the influence of the holiest, the Priest’s hand16 led her to the arms of her Lover, who as unspoiled yet and unsophisticated as she, had not sought to unveil the most august secrets of Nature with audacious hand. Intoxicated with rapture he drew his darling on to the Torus (sacred couch) bedecked with fragrant blossoms, and almost unconsciously to himself, became the creator of a being wherein both saw themselves made young again.

If Man is really the noblest of created Beings, made by the Creator in his own image, in very truth then the power that unconsciously raises Man to the level of his Maker must be a divine power too, and that act in the exercise of which it comes itself into play an act of most sublime worship. Are we to suppose there never was a time when Man, pure as he came from the hand of his Creator, followed in the singleness of his heart no other law but that written in his heart? Surely not merely in the dreams of the Poet was found the legend of an Eden, from which Man was driven out by his own guilt; more true to say that to this day we are all of us born therein. But alas! others’ guilt or our own tears us away from out the garden of Paradise, ere we have yet been able often to raise our eyes to take delight in its glory. Thus it is that many a man now and again has the memory of a Dream, that accompanies him on his pilgrimage through life, and he hopes to find in the future what long ago, before he grew conscious of its existence, became a thing of the past. Perchance it may be the fatal tasting of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge was nothing else than the misuse of the genital organs, to content bestial longings, to arouse the titillation of an enervating pruriency17. “And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked!” The bestial had won the victory over the divine, which fled away from the desecrated altar; and the Genius of Mankind wept over their Fall!

Here is the History at once of Man individually and of whole Peoples. Over the Temple-worship of Aphrodité also impended such a crisis; and sooner or later the holy courts of Venus Urania (Heavenly Venus) changed into the Lupanar of Venus Vulgivaga (Brothel of Venus of the Streets).

§ 3.

A precise knowledge of the extension of the Venus-cult in chronological order would readily supply us the means of following up historically the moral deterioration of the Peoples of Antiquity; but so long as we do not possess this, History cannot be expected to give us anything of great value. All that we are for the present in a position to give, pertinent to the object we aim at, is as follows:

“The worship of this Urania,” says Pausanias18, “the Assyrians first introduced amongst themselves, after the Assyrians the Paphians in Cyprus19, and among the Phoenicians20 the inhabitants of Ascalon in Palestine. From the Phoenicians the inhabitants of Cythera21 learned to know and worship her. At Athene Aegeus introduced her worship.” It was at Babylon then that the cult of Venus originated as Mylitta worship, spread over the inland parts to Mesopotamia as the Sabaean22 religion, and was passed on by the Phoenicians to the seaboard peoples as Astarté-worship. For at the spot where this cult first arose, it lasted longest in its original purity, and Herodotus23 could report how at Babylon the daughters of the country were compelled once in their life-time to give themselves for money to a strange man to win the favour of the goddess, then to return to their dwelling all the more virtuous for the sin, and neither promises nor gifts, however great these might be, availed ever again to draw them into the arms of a stranger. Later indeed it was different even here, perhaps through the influence of the Phoenicians, who had manifold dealings with them. For Herodotus himself relates elsewhere (Bk. I. 196), that after the capture of Babylon by the Persians, the poorer classes, dreading the forcible abduction of their daughters, if means of subsistence failed them, made them harbour-wenches24. And accordingly Q. Curtius25 felt bound to write of Babylon:

“Nihil urbis eius corruptius moribus, nihil ad irritandas illiciendasque immodicas voluptates instructius. Liberos coniugesque cum hospitibus stupro coire, modo pretium flagitii detur, parentes maritique patiuntur…. Feminarum convivia ineuntium in principio modestus est habitus, dein summa quaeque amicula exuunt, paulatimque pudorem profanant: ad ultimum … ima corporum velamenta proiiciunt; nec meretricum hoc dedecus est sed matronarum virginumque apud quas comitas habetur vulgati corporis vilitas.”

(Nothing can well be more corrupt than the manners of this City, nothing more artfully adapted to excite the passions and allure to voluptuous excesses. Strangers are permitted by parents and husbands, provided the price of shame is forthcoming, to have lustful intercourse with their children and their wives…. At their first entrance to the banquet-room the women’s dress is modest, presently they remove their outer robes one by one, and little by little violate all modesty, … at the last stripping off the innermost coverings of their persons. And this is no mere abomination of harlots, but the habit of matrons and maids, who consider that in thus making themselves cheap and exposing their bodies they are showing courtesy). This custom we find again carried still further amongst the Armenians, who Strabo2627 says consecrate their daughters for some considerable length of time to Anaitis, and only after this suffer them to marry. Herodotus28 relates the same custom of the Lydians, degenerated in the same way as had been the case in later times at Babylon, for here too the lower classes used to abandon their daughters to prostitution for a livelihood. Still in its original purity the usage reached the Phoenicians29, but with them also would seem to have early degenerated, although in particular towns of Phoenicia the practice appears to have been followed only under certain circumstances. Lucian30 relates that the women, of Byblus, where was a Temple of Ἀφροδίτη βυβλίη (Venus of Byblos), if they would not allow their hair to be cut off at the Funeral-feast of Adonis, were bound in honour of Venus for one whole day to abandon their bodies to strangers. Among the Carthaginians31 also, as in Cyprus32, maidens had to earn their dowry, and the Tyrant Dionysius introduced the same custom, no doubt with a secondary design of a profit for himself, amongst the people of Locri.33

§ 4.

As to the reason for this custom, one might be found in the opinion that prevailed almost universally in Antiquity amongst the Asiatic peoples, that the first-fruits of everything were consecrate to the Deity, and accordingly the virgin’s hymen must be offered up to Venus. But this will not in any way explain why the self-surrender must nearly always take place with a Stranger (ἀνδρὶ ξείνῳ) of all people in the world. Heyne34 and Fr. Jacobs35, who paid special attention to this custom, are it is true agreed in thinking that a religious motive lay at the bottom of it, though they differ in their conception of what it was; but neither of them hit on the right explanation. A careful distinction must be made between the Ceremony and the Act of the self-surrender. The first was a matter of religion, the second not; for the women were conveyed at Babylon outside the Temple-precincts, in Cyprus to the sea-shore, for the purpose of yielding their bodies to strangers36. Had the act been regarded at that period as a religious one, it would of necessity have been practised, as was the case before and again later, in the Temple or at least within its precincts, and of course with fellow-countrymen, strangers not being allowed to take part in any native religious practice.

The discrepancies however soon disappear if it is remembered that in Antiquity, as to this day amongst many savage peoples, not only was the menstrual blood (of which more fully later) held to be impure, but also the blood that flowed, when a virgin was deflowered, from the rupture of the hymen, and consequently the act of defloration as well. The same held good in the case of coition with widows, because it was believed that with them the menstrual blood accumulated in greater quantity, then was discharged on occasion of the first coition, and must necessarily cause injury to the man. This also explains why Herodotus (loco citato) says γυναῖκες (women) and not simply κόραι or παρθένοι (girls, virgins); and removes at once Heyne’s doubts (p. 32) and the difficulties raised by Heeren37.

The dwellers on the sea-coast, who enjoyed more active intercourse with the rest of the world, left to strangers the polluting act of defloration, whilst among inland peoples this office was undertaken for those of the higher classes38 by the priests, or else an idol, specially appropriated for the purpose, a Priapus or Lingam (see later) was employed. Subsequently several mistaken reasons may well have been alleged for the custom; the only idea that continued to be consistently held was that defloration was not a proper function of the bridegroom. It was rather made a matter of honour, and accordingly brides offered themselves first to the wedding-guests, as among the Nasomonians in Africa39 and in the Balearic Islands40, where the right of preference went by age.

We must then take into consideration several causal factors to help us to an explanation of the custom in question. The original motive may very well have been in every case the consecration of the maiden’s virginity to the goddess,41—Hieroduli (Temple hand-maids) in the earlier meaning. Further again the maiden was bound to pay her tribute to the goddess of sexual Pleasure42, so as to co-operate with the husband with a view to the procreation of children. Little by little the custom lost its purer character. After a time it ceased to be any longer one of universal obligation, and became binding only for the poorer classes, who found in it an opportunity of earning a dowry43 for their daughters. Meantime the rich adopted the habit of presenting female slaves to the temple of the goddess, thereby giving occasion for the establishment of the regular Hieroduli,—who subsequently grew into filles de joie in the proper sense, and laying the foundation of the brothel system (see later). Out of the idea of consecration was subsequently developed on the one hand that of initiation for the married state,—an idea found again in the “proof-nights” custom of the Middle Ages, and on the other the idea of bondage that grew into the “Jus primae noctis” (Right of first night).

As second factor then must be reckoned the belief in the harmfulness of the blood resulting from rupture of the hymen at defloration; and connected with this the actual injury that the man’s genital organs are occasionally exposed to in deflowering a maid with narrow vaginal orifice, or at any rate the effort necessarily called for to perforate the hymen, a motive not without actual weight amongst indolent Asiatics44. To this day the bridegroom at Goa gives thanks to the Priapus (Lingam), that has loosed his bride’s virgin-zone, with marks of the deepest adoration and gratitude for having performed this honourable service and so relieved him of a heavy task45.

For the maid defloration is yet more painful, and as she had to go through it once and once only with a stranger, she might readily get the idea that it was the stranger alone that was to blame; consequently that every surrender to a stranger must involve the same sufferings. This would deter her from a second experience of the kind, and all the more so because the subsequent embraces of the husband stirred in her only pleasurable sensations. So the wife had no inducement to break the marriage vow.

§ 5.

When and under what circumstances the cult of Venus first came into Greece can hardly be discovered, though indeed Pausanias states in the passage quoted above that it was Aegeus (Erechtheus) who brought it to Athens. For a long period it played only a subordinate part, being kept under by the primeval god Eros (Love)46. No doubt the physical element may have come in early times from abroad47, but before long the stamp of the spiritual was strongly impressed upon it (the Graces were added as handmaidens to Aphrodité!),—so strongly that the idea of the procreating power fell henceforth into the background, to give place to that of Love, an idea that was entirely foreign to Asia. The amalgamation of Eros and Aphrodité, who was now first hallowed by him, or as the poet puts it, now first brought forward into the assemblage (Order) of the Gods, came about so gradually and imperceptibly that it would hardly be possible to obtain a clear conception of the views of the Greeks on the point. In consequence of the growing intercourse with the peoples of Asia, and particularly the Phoenicians48, foreign customs and usages came to be introduced and adopted with ever increasing frequency; and during the flourishing period of Greece we see the Asiatic character of the Venus ritual come into ever greater prominence, and the goddess herself in a sense re-introduced. Especially was this the case in the Islands and the seaport-towns, where as a rule the worship of Aphrodité first arose. Hence she was entitled the goddess “born of the (Sea) Foam”, and temples were built to her as “Protectress of Havens.”49

But the Greek genius found this physical Cult too strongly opposed to its own spirit. The Greek could not bring it into unison with his Eros-worship; and accordingly distinguished his goddess, under the name of Aphrodité Urania (Heavenly Aphrodité)50, from that worshipped by other Peoples as Aphrodité Pandemos51 (Aphrodité Common to all Men). The latter was relegated to the Islands52, and particularly Cyprus; and never properly speaking became a national Deity.

It is very interesting as a general fact that the Venus Urania always belongs, so it appears, to the inland regions, the Venus Pandemos on the contrary to the sea-ports and islands53; for it was as a rule from East to West along the coast-lines that the Asiatic form of the Cult spread, a thing that could not have happened except through the instrumentality of a people early practising navigation, such as the Phoenicians.

It cannot fail to have an important bearing on our subject to make a more precise acquaintance with the geographical distribution of the Venus-cult. We propose to give here a brief enumeration of the localities where she had her temples. The passages in evidence for this will be found given with tolerable completeness in Manso,—p. 46, also pp. 158 sqq.

In Cyprus: at Paphos, whither came yearly a great concourse of people at the festival time54; in Pamphiliain Asia Minor; along the Coast-line of the Aegean; in Caria (Cnidos); Halicarnassus; Miletus; Ephesus; Sardis; Pergamus; Pyrrha; Abydos (Aphrodité πόρνη—harlot); in Thessaly; at Tricca; in Boeotia, (Tanagra—on the Sea); in Attica, (Athens, Colias, Pera55, on the Cephissus); in the Islands of the Aegean Sea, (Ceos, Cos, Samos, where the temple was built from the earnings of the Hetaerae); in the Peloponnese: at Argolis, Epidaurus, Troezen, Hermioné, (was visited by maids and widows before their marriage); in Laconia, (Amyclae, Cythera); Arcadia, (Megalopolis, Tegea, Orcomenus); Elis, (Olympia, Elis); Achaia, (Patrae, Corinth); on the Coast of the Corinthian Gulf. From Greece we come to Sicily, where the temple of Venus on Mount Eryx was hardly inferior to that of Paphos, also at Syracuse56.

Not without importance for our purpose is the statement of Strabo57, that in the island of Cos in the temple of Aesculapius was an effigy of Venus Anadyomené (coming from the bath), while according to Pausanias58 in a wood near the temple of the same god at Epidaurus was built a chapel of Aphrodité, since very possibly this may throw some light on the question of the knowledge of complaints of the genital organs possessed by the physicians of Cos. Böttiger59 is of opinion that it was from the infirmaries and lazarettos of the Phoenicians that the earliest medical science of the Greeks was introduced—to the island of Cos; to Aegina, on the Peloponnesian coasts, especially at Epidaurus. Probably these establishments were originally under the protection of the national deity, until the latter was superseded by the god Aesculapius.

As regards the cult of Aphrodité itself and the manner in which it was celebrated in Greece, there appears to be a great lack of particulars capable of supplying a general knowledge of the subject, and especially so where the Pandemian Aphrodité is concerned. Accordingly we will limit ourselves here to mentioning the female Hieroduli60 who as bondswomen of Aphrodité dwelt within the precinct of her Temple, and performed the necessary observances in her honour. These were, as already pointed out, of Asiatic origin, and to be found in greater numbers particularly at Ameria61 and Comana62 in Pontus, where they united with the temple-service the traffic of their bodies, (τῶν ἐργαζομένων ἀπὸ τοῦ σώματος—of women who traffic with their body), just as in later times male Hieroduli gave up their persons for Paederastia.

When the cult of Venus came into Greece, the Hieroduli were introduced along with it. But they stripped off in Greece their Asiatic character, which they assumed again only in particular sea-port towns at the period of the decline of the moral greatness of the Nation, in places where the temple of Aphrodité Πόρνη (Harlot) was found. Specially was this so at Corinth63, in which city were more than a thousand female Hieroduli, who were presented as slaves to the Temple. These attracted a great concourse of strangers to the place, and in particular used to prey upon sea-faring visitors. Possibly however in this case as in others a confusion took place between the Hieroduli properly so-called and the Hetaerae (Lady-Companions), who were euphemistically entitled Priestesses, Handmaids of Aphrodité, because they were under the patronage of that goddess, just as in a general way sexual enjoyment was called an offering to Venus.

This would offer the best solution of the question, early debated, of the morality of the Hieroduli. It was quite opposed to Greek feeling to worship Aphrodité after the Asiatic manner in her temples; and so the Greek distinguished his Venus Urania from the Venus Pandemos, and on the same principle separated her temples into two categories, and made the temples of Aphrodité Pandemos, Porné and Praxis (Common to All, Harlot, Sexual Intercourse) into the οἰκήματα τῆς Ἀφροδίτης (houses of Aphrodité) serving as ordinary brothels, the latter being only intended for Foreigners originally.

How and under what form the cult of Venus came into Italy is uncertain, but the legend represents Aeneas as having brought it from Troy to Lavinium and Laurentum64, and already in the time of Romulus a Venus Myrtea (Venus of the Myrtle) was venerated at Rome. In addition a Venus Cloacina, Erycina, Victrix, and Verticordia (Venus—the Purifier, of Mount Eryx, of Victory, the Turner of Hearts) are mentioned, as also a Venus Calva (bald), whose worship King Ancus is said to have introduced, at a time when the Roman women had lost their hair through a plague and it had grown again by the help of Venus65. Not only are the notices as to Venus worship in Italy very scanty, but everything on the subject points to the fact that what there was of it in later times showed little of the Asiatic impress; and we can conveniently leave the matter where it is. Some questions belonging to the subject will be discussed later under the heading Brothels. In Spain too the worship of Venus was so unimportant that there is no need to enter more closely into the point.

General Scheme of Treatment.

It now becomes important to consider more closely these various views, as well as the reasons advanced for them, and to subject them to examination. But as the result of this examination will cover to some extent the same ground as the formal History, it will be expedient to treat the two as far as possible in connection with one another. By this method it will ipso facto appear how far the individual views are tenable, and how far the grounds alleged in their favour valid. And this is all the more necessary for two reasons, first because by this means a host of repetitions is avoided, secondly because only in this way are such gaps as still remain clearly recognised and made tangible.

All the different views fall, as already stated, into two groups, according as they maintain the antiquity or the modernness of the Venereal Disease. In conformity with this division we must separate our investigation from the outset into two parts, of which Part I is to comprise the Venereal Disease in Antiquity, Part II the Venereal Disease to the end of the XVth. Century. To this will be added further as a Third Part, the History of the Disease down to our own day.

Each of the two earlier Parts will open, in accordance with the views declared above, with a statement and examination of the Authorities.

After that will follow an investigation of the influences that evoked diseases as a consequence of the use or misuse of the Genital organs and are favourable to their genesis, as well as those influences capable of staying, or in the case of diseases already established, modifying their progress. The difficulty of such an investigation is as striking as is its necessity; for on this subject there is an almost total lack of previous Works of any use to consult; and yet it is only by their help we can possibly win a deeper insight into the history of Venereal Disease.

The attitude of medical Science in face of these influences and their consequences will next claim our attention, so far as it is competent to exert a determining and modifying effect on the form and character of the Disease. In this connection it is especially important to determine whether the Physicians correctly diagnosed these diseases for what they are, or generally speaking had any opportunity of doing so.

Having come to a clear understanding, as far as is possible, on all these points, we shall then be in a position to give a genetic exposition of the development of the Disease itself. This will form the conclusion of each separate part, as well as of the whole Work; and then and then only we shall be able to say our task is fulfilled.

Abstract of Opinions advanced at various Periods on the question of the Antiquity and First Rise of the Venereal Disease.

The different Opinions advanced at various periods on the question of the Antiquity and Origin of the Venereal Disease may at the outset be brought under two main divisions, according as the disease is supposed to have been already known to the Ancients and from their time onwards to have been continuously observed, or on the other hand regarded as having first arisen in the ninetieth year of the XVth. Century. Both views were framed much about the same time, and depended largely on the position and education of the person delivering judgement. The former may be styled the view of the learned, the latter the popular view, though indeed at their first inception it was not so much scientific reasons in either case as men’s prejudices that formed their basis.

The few really learned Physicians of the end of XVth. Century and beginning of the XVIth. took as the theme of their study not Nature but rather the medical Writings of the Greeks and Arabians, a field that had long been left unappropriated by them, and all were far too firmly convinced, that Hippocrates, and still more Galen and Avicenna had already included in their Works everything that could ever be the subject of scientific treatment at any given time.

Attention was concentrated upon the Skin Affection that was the predominant form at first, and this was naturally enough taken for a kind of Leprosy, and called sometimes Elephantiasis (Seb. AquilanusPhil. Beroaldus), sometimes “Formica” (SchelligCumanusGilinusLeonicenusSteber), by others “Saphat” (J. WidmannNat. MontesaurusJul. TanusJo. de FoguedaSim. Pistor). Hence the view advanced subsequently by SydenhamHallerPlenkThierryHaward, and held for a time by Sprengel, that the original form of the Venereal Disease was the “Yaws” or “Piana”, and consequently that Africa must be assigned as the original home of the disease; and in this way the Moors also were brought in as part of the concatenation. Later on, when the conviction grew up that the beginning of the Disease consists in local affections of the genital organs, it was easy to show that these had always been in existence from the most ancient times. But as no direct information on the relation between affections of the Genitals and Skin-disease was to be found in the earlier Writers, enquirers were driven to the supposition, that Syphilitic affections of the Skin had been confounded by the Ancients with Leprosy.

A view, which Becket first sought to establish on precise grounds, appeared on the contrary too bold to other investigators, who thought to find some way of evading it. This was to the effect that Leprosy under favourable conditions had changed into Venereal Disease, and the increased rarity of the former seemed to speak for this opinion. Supporters of this last view are in especial Sprengel and Choulant in his Preface to Fracastori’s “Syphilis”. Whilst the particular home of the Disease was fixed in this way by some authors, Swediaur and Beckman thought to find it in the East Indies, and held that the “Dschossam”, a familiar Indian disease, or else the “Persian Fire” must be looked upon as the original form of the Complaint. Schaufus agreed with them in part; he believed Venereal disease to have been brought by the Gypsies from India to Europe. Dr. Wizmann3 made the disease arise in the IInd. Century in Dacia, which at that date was transformed into a Roman Colony and had to welcome the licentious Roman soldiery. The excesses of these colonists, in a strange climate, and seconded by a combination of conditions favourable to epidemic sickness, produced the disease, which he says is generated to this day in its genuine form in Turkey. Accordingly Wizmann, as also Sprengel and Choulant, and to some extent Gruner, who considered the Moors to be the parents of the Venereal disease, may be regarded as taking up an intermediate position between the two extreme views, and as making a sort of transition to the opinions of those who look upon the Disease as a new one.

The special supporters of this view were, as mentioned above, the non-medical, though a considerable number of men calling themselves Physicians agreed with them, though on other grounds, differing only as to the mode in which the Disease arose. The prevailing astrological views found the original cause of the Disease in the Conjunction of the Planets, a conjunction declared beforehand by prophecy to bode disaster. With this were included as contributing to the effect Inundations, the oppressed condition of Nations, Famine and the like. The disease was called an epidemic, or what at that period was practically synonymous, a pestilential disease, a Plague, and ascribed of course to the wrath of God. There were other accounts given, that still carry some show of probability; the Disease was referred to the poisoning of wells and of wine (Caesalpinus), to the admixture of gypsum with the flour (Fallopia), or actually to indulgence in human flesh.

When coition could no longer be denied as an interposing factor, rumour resorted to all sorts of wild tales, the copulation of a courtesan with a Leper, copulation with animals, and particularly with asses, and finally with the voluptuous Indian women of America. From the latter story grew up by degrees the theory of the American origin of Venereal Disease, which found its chief supporters in Astruc and Girtanner, and in spite of Hensler’s exertions seems even yet not absolutely forgotten.

Possibility of the History of a Disease in General and of Venereal Disease in Particular.

Having learned the Conception and proper Contents of the History of a Disease, we naturally proceed to another closely connected question,—do all Diseases admit of such a historical exposition? It may be taken for granted at the outset with tolerable certainty that the answer to this question will be affirmative for the majority of actual Diseases; at any rate hardly an objection can be alleged from the theoretical stand-point. At the same time practical Experience must be allowed a voice on this point.

Unhappily we gain but little that is comforting from experience. It can scarcely be said that even a beginning has been made so far towards writing the History of a Disease in the indicated sense; and besides this, diseases have been primarily selected for consideration in which the historical factor obtrudes itself, as it were, on the attention, to wit the epidemic diseases. For the rest hardly anything at all has been done, excepting only in the case of Leprosy and the Venereal Disease, for which with singular unanimity an epidemic character has always been claimed. The Proteus-like character of these Maladies hindered every attempt of speculation to penetrate their nature, and so enquirers saw themselves forced to consult History. But the merest superficial glance at the treatment of Venereal disease by its Historians (and this applies equally to Leprosy) will show that little more than an insufficient collection of materials towards an actual History of the disease has thus far seen the light; and this in spite of the fact that no contemptible number of the most distinguished Scholars have devoted time and trouble to the subject, in many cases making it their life’s work.

However, if the matter is looked into more closely, it will be evident that a large proportion of these scholars directed their attention to one single point only, viz. the antiquity and time of origin of the Disease; and regarded all the other factors only in so far as they supported one or other of the views they had formulated. Besides the co-ordination of these factors is seen to be so loose that no general result of any stringency could ever be obtained. The few men whose definite purpose it was to arrive at such a result, failed, in view of the difficulty of collecting the material, to reach the completeness they had proposed, and so deferred working up what they had accumulated till death put an end to their enterprise. In especial this was the case with Hensler, and the non-appearance of the Second Part of his History of the Venereal Disease must doubtless long continue to be mourned as an irreparable loss.

The Past, on which all experience must draw, affords us so little assistance here that it is to the Future we must look for everything. The Present cannot show us in existence any history of Venereal disease as we understand it, but this in no way entitles it to deny the possibility of such a History. Thus it is of the highest importance to make the attempt to arrange and sift the material now ready and accessible, so far as it concerns the Venereal Disease, on principles conformable to the Conception and proper Contents as indicated above of the History of a Disease, and for this a relative completeness of the collected materials suffices. If in this way we are successful in sketching the history of Venereal Disease at any rate in its general outlines, it can quite well be left to the continued efforts of other Investigators to fill in the individual lines of the picture, especially as then and then only is the particular point ascertained by anticipation, at which later accessions must be worked in.

In every History, what comes first and foremost is to get to know the original Authorities from which the material for its treatment can be drawn, and this forms the proper Contents of the Literary history of the Disease. Accordingly our first duty will be to give a general survey of the literary helps lying ready to hand for the use of the Historian of Venereal Disease, and at the same time to specify how far these were accessible to ourselves. Thus the reader will be enabled at the very outset to form a judgement as to the completeness of the information supplied; and succeeding Enquirers will learn the gaps that are left remaining for them to fill up.

This will conclude a Survey of the historical results so far obtained in connection with the antiquity and time of origin of the Disease; and it will then be possible to indicate the special Scheme we propose to follow in our treatment of the task before us.

Conception and Contents of the History of a Disease in general.

If we would undertake to write the history of a Disease, the very first thing needful is to frame in one’s own mind a clear conception of what the History of a Disease in a general way is, for it is from a right preliminary conception, that the right conditions will follow which a Historian as such is bound to fulfil. Consult experience,—in other words enquire what has been usually understood under the name History of a Disease, and you find to be included in the idea,—first, a more or less complete chronological comparison of the different observations and views of different Physicians at different times on such or such a Disease, secondly, a survey of the course of the Disease in the individual case. The first is properly only a history of the opinions of Physicians, the History of the Literature so to speak of the Disease, which must come before the actual History, while the latter is nothing else than a history of a Disease in a single instance, that is to say the history of a particular case of disease, the history of individual patients; and this we have long been in the habit of reckoning a part of Clinics.

Nay, the sum of such clinical histories if taken all together will not help us to the actual history of a Disease, so long as they merely give an account of the visible symptoms by which the disease makes its presence known. By this means we shall be learning merely the ideal course of the Malady, getting a pictorial representation of it such as is demanded by Pathological specialists,—as it were the internal history of the Disease. We cannot write the history of a single Man or of a single Nation so as to be a sufficient basis for the understanding and right appreciation of them, if we grasp only their inner history, that of their internal development, and consequently view them by themselves as a something separated off from all surroundings, instead of bearing in mind as we should the forms their relations take to environment, to the outer world generally,—in fact their external history. Similarly we are just as little in a position to furnish the history of a Disease, if we include in the matter of our enquiry only the course of the disease and not its external relations as well.

It is only the inner genetic co-ordination of the two, viz. the internal and the external history (for Disease has also an external history) that can conduct to the actual History of the Disease. This may be defined as a genetic co-ordination and statement of the symptoms of a Disease under different conditions and in different individuals, from the first moment at which they arose and came under observation down to the time when the report is made; or, expressed more briefly, the History of a Disease is a genetic co-ordination and account of its development and progress in time (as conditioned by time). Supposing Time, Relations, and Number of individuals definitely limited, a Special History is the result; while the General History of a Disease properly speaking can never be viewed as isolated from its surroundings. In that case the conditions on which the generation and origin of the particular Disease depend would necessarily cease entirely and for ever to exist.

Now if we analyse the conception of the History of a Disease into its component parts, we shall get to know its special contents, the efficient factors of which it is compounded, and which the Historian has to comprehend and express. The function of History is to exhibit something that has happened; naturally therefore the first thing the Historian must do is to look out for the point of time at which the process of change began. But certain generating factors and influences are indispensable to every process of change, and their activity again is dependent on certain favourable external conditions; and so it becomes the next duty of the Historian to authenticate the existence of the said favourable influences as well as of the generating factors, and concurrently to determine in what manner they came into active operation. Inasmuch as it happens however sometimes that the interposing or favouring as well as the generative factors are known to be present, and yet no outbreak of disease occurs, so far as we see, or only an incompletely developed one, those influences also will require authentication which hindered or modified the potential activity of the factors.

Only after all this has been systematically and sufficiently analyzed, will it become possible to trace the development and course of the Disease itself and to mark the successive changes offered to observation from its first appearance to the time when its history was recorded. Now these changes are imposed upon it either by its own proper nature or from outside, and so the Historian must explain also the internal and external relations involved. Again in any individual case the various manifestations or signs of a Disease by no means appear all together at one time, but rather develope in a series; so in the general course of a Disease, as recorded historically, a similar continuous series of symptoms will be more or less clearly noticeable, yet without implying that it is dependent solely on external conditions. Further, as every Disease is liable at any given time to come into conflict with another, the Historian will in this case also have to point out, what forms the relations of either took at the moment, whether the disease in question showed itself as determining the other or was itself determined by it, whether it consented to enter into combinations, whether it led to the annihilation of its adversary or was itself annihilated, or whether lastly both remained in a manner neutral. Finally account must be taken of the influence of medical aid, and generally of the relation of the Physician to the Disease.

These different points once successfully and in a competent manner co-ordinated into a kind of organic connexion, the resulting History of Disease, a clinical History, yet as wide as humanity itself, will supply the most momentous factor towards an insight into the nature and essence of Disease. It will not merely afford the theoretical enquirer the necessary materials for his speculations as to Disease in general and systems of treatment, but also teach the practical Physician the conditions of a rational method of Therapeutics; and will consequently be equally interesting, and what is more, equally needful to both. Such an organic connexion can only be established on the condition that the Historian calls to remembrance step by step, as he proceeds, the sciences of Physiology and Pathology. Only by their help is it possible always and everywhere to mark the inner necessity of the relation of cause and effect and to distinguish the essential from the accidental.

Deals in purchasing and renting apartments

Virginia can give you some snappy deals for your job and apartment as it offers well paying jobs and low cost of living. The city is thriving to be one of the most progressive cities of United States so it is trying to attract more people for boosting its economy. This city has the head offices of many fortune five hundred and fortune one thousand companies so it can offer the best job as compared to all the other neighbouring cities and even states. Virginia has a very appealing weather condition because you will get to enjoy all the weather types in this city. Winters will show you their best and summers will also be at their peak but the mid seasons will get you to enjoy your life more than anything. A sunny day after long snow can bring all the happiness to your life and you will find hundreds of people going out for picnic in those days. You can also join the parties with your neighbours as people in this like to live as a community and interact in the best possible ways. You need to find a reasonable apartment in Virginia if you want to enjoy all these things with your family and friends. Hundreds of apartments can be found on rent over here but the real issue is your demand because the low rent offering apartments will not have much to offer in return.

A proper search will lead you to the best apartment for you as some people construct special houses for just putting them on rent and they will be designed according to your needs as a tenant. Getting a studio apartment is always a best option if you have to live there alone because it will offer lowest possible rent along with all the possible amenities. Some of these apartments have small swimming pools in them and they can also be rented out on short term basis during vacations. Rent for these types of apartments will be around $70 per night which is quiet reasonable for vacation houses.

Second option for vacation houses can be the cabins in Virginia as they are out in the woods and close to nature so you will be alone there with your family so this will give you full time for each other plus some free rides to the main city. The city has a lot of places which can be visited for fun and recreation like museum, restaurants, cafes and a lot of night clubs. They can be visited along with family but you can also go there on your own if you are alone on vacations.

Vacation apartments offer a lot of good deals over here and all of them will be well furnished to give you memorable pictures of your vacations back home. They will include a beautiful view from balcony and wooden decks where you can sit to have dinner or evening tea with your family. You can also look for an apartment having hot tub so that you will be able to enjoy the beautiful view while soaking in hot water.

Elderly apartments based in Virginia

It is not easy to carry on with your life easily when you hit your retirement because you will have to cope up with usual routine with much affected health conditions. It is always good to shape up your life according to your health needs because no one will want to destroy life by making the health conditions worse than ever. Some people plan thoroughly for their retirement savings and they even add up the money they will need for maintaining their lawn. Some people get proper insurance companies to deal with their retirement and some make good investments which pay them during bad times of fixed income. It is really lucky to be one of those people but you have to figure something out if you do not belong to the group of these people. You will face increasing expenditures and decreasing income on daily basis which can increase your stress level and then affect your health resulting in the addition of some more expenditure to your budget. It is good to move in to an independent or assisted living apartment in a good and cheap city because this will help you to cut short your expenses. Assisted living apartments Virginia will provide proper living benefits along with less cost as they provide all the benefits in packages. They will also cut short the money that you have to spend on maintenance of house and they provide the cleaning and cooking service to decrease your physical work. All these things help retired people to sit and enjoy their retired life with their partner or new friends made in the house.

Some independent living apartments are situated in very beautiful communities outside the main city so they provide good interaction with nature and calm environment for people at this time of their age. The habitants are allowed to o out for a walk on long roads or beautiful parks with jogging tracks because slow jogging helps people have heart conditions. Parks also provide good opportunity for interaction to these people because all of them gather at the same place on same time. They sit in groups and share good or bad stories from their lives so it is good for them because they finally get people to listen to the things that they are proud of in their lives.

Some young people also volunteer to go these places and spend some time with elderly people because it is good for both of them. Youngsters will get a opportunity to learn from real life experiences of other people and they will be able to do something good with their lives. On the other hand elders get an opportunity to talk to different people and have good time which is good for their mental and physical health. Independent apartments also allow them to keep pets as therapy because they will lack the outside interaction in their lives and it is not good for all of them. Pet food and pet vaccination is provided with special discount to the elderly people in Texas because they happen to be the best pet parents.

Emergency housing in Virginia

Life does not always turn out the way you want it to be so you face a lot of sudden troubles like job loss and in this condition government have to help you because you have been paying taxes throughout your life. Government of Texas knows this and they provide you with all kinds of facilities in these situations so do not forget to have a look at them before you think about doing something else. Housing is the foremost thing that will bother soon after losing the job or going bankrupt because landlord will never listen to these kinds of things from you. Everyone does not have good friends to help them out in situation like this so government has introduced emergency housing for people who want to stay in a house for free for some time. These emergency apartments based in Virginia will only allow you to stay here for some time but you can also apply for permanent housing if you have got serious problems in your life. This service is mainly provided by the military officials and only citizens of Texas can avail them. No one can choose to be a homeless person and it should also not be defined as a category of human beings because it can happen to anyone in their lives but good housing can save people from indulging in crime and other bad things.

Thousands of people avail the opportunity every night and spend some time to get a sleep over here in case of any trouble. People visit Virginia for vacations every year and this is the reason that web spam for vacation apartments has increased more than ever before. People make bookings for vacation apartments online and make the initial payment but end up in finding out that the money they paid did not reach the real house owner because someone hacked the ID of house owner and gave the wrong account for payment. This can be shocking news if you get it on your arrival in the city during late night so there will be no place for you to go now because hotels also require you to make the payment and reservation months before your arrival so it is the time when emergency housing, provided by military officials of Virginia, will help you to stay in their special homes. You can get out of the following morning and start looking for apartment available on rent in this city which can be done in nearly one or two days.

These apartments are designed for emergency housing and they will not have all the facilities of life but you will feel comfortable after moving in the warm cosy bedroom. This is because scams can be very stressful for your whole family and they will ruin your vacations so some people will decide to get back on the plane to their house but it is good to stay and get other place to live because some vacations will help your family get over the trauma.

Enjoy fresh food while living in Virginia

Fresh food is the only thing that everyone needs throughout his life but unfortunately is cannot be readily available to everyone living in city. Another great unfortunate for most of the people in United States is that they will not be able to live in a village like Virginia for all of their lives but this can be a best place to spend your childhood and the retirement life. The village carries a lot of benefits for people including good healthy and fresh food and both of these benefits are most needed during childhood and retirement life. You will be able to live with the fact that you could not spend your childhood in a small village but do not let your children to miss this opportunity. You have to plan all the way through if you want to give your children a strong base and most of this planning will include your way of income while living over there. This is because a small village like Virginia will not be able to provide you with perfect employment opportunities and all you can do over there is find out something new as a small business. You will not be able to stay there for a long while if you do not want to affect the schooling of your children so you can look for homes for sale in Virginia and purchase them for just two years. This will be a small investment on your side which can be received back while shifting back to city or you can keep the house for future like the retirement or vacation times.

Virginia will actually not provide some proper opportunities of entertainment like a big city because there will be no public parks, restaurants and other night life activities but this is a very small price to pay for just two years if you are looking to provide good childhood for your kids. A small village like this will also provide you an opportunity to stay close to your kid and teach him all the necessary things. You will get an opportunity to have all the time of your kid to yourself and this will also help to build the initial strong bond between you and your kids. A village area will be fun for young kids because they will have a lot of place to play and people are also very friendly towards each other. Village is also a good place to be if you have got some religious background and you want your kids to get all that too. This is because there will be much less distractions and children will not have many questions in their mind whenever you tell them something.

Houses in Virginia are big and cheap as a 3 bedroom big house with three independent bathrooms is available in just $200,000 and the lowest price of a house over here is $50,000. This price is nothing for a house which can be your place to live during vacations and your retirement.

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